The discovery of a hoard of 429 exquisitely crafted objects of copper, ivory and haematite in the Cave of the Treasure in the Judean Desert radically changed thinking about the technological achievements of the Chalcolithic period. The natural conditions in this and other caves in the region resulted in the preservation of inorganic and organic materials, including basketry, cordage, floral remains, textiles, leather, wood and human skeletal remains from the Chalcolithic period and the time of the Bar-Kokhba revolt (ca. 132 CE).